Reproductive Cloning is the process of making a full living copy of an organism. Reproductive cloning of animals transplants nuclei from body cells into eggs that have had their nucleus removed. That egg is then stimulated to divide using an electrical charge and is implanted into the uterus of a female.
Gene Cloning creates copies of genes or DNA fragments. Gene cloning is the most common form of cloning performed by researchers at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Genes are cloned for scientists to study in a laboratory setting.
1952 – Scientists demonstrate they can remove the nucleus from a frog’s egg, replace it with the nucleus of an embryonic frog cell, and get the egg to develop into a tadpole.
1984 – A researcher in Britain claims that he has cloned the first mammal, a lamb that was produced via the nuclear transfer of sheep embryo cells.
1998 – More than 50 mice are reportedly cloned from a single mouse over several generations. Separately, eight calves are reportedly cloned from a cow.
2000 – Pigs and a goat are reportedly cloned from adult cells.
2002 – Rabbits and a kitten are reportedly cloned from adult cells.
May 4, 2003 – Scientists at the University of Idaho say they have cloned a mule, naming it Idaho Gem. Two additional mules are cloned that same year as part of a joint project between the University of Idaho and Utah State University.
August 6, 2003 – Scientists at the Laboratory of Reproductive Technology in Cremona, Italy, say they have created the world’s first cloned horse, Prometea, from an adult cell taken from the horse who gave birth to her.
September 26, 2003 – The journal Science reports that French scientists at the National Institute of Agricultural Research at Joy en Josas, France, have cloned rats for the first time.
August 3, 2005 – South Korean researchers announce they have successfully cloned a dog, an Afghan hound named Snuppy.
May 2009 – A clone of two-time quarter horse world champion Tailor Fit is born, one of several cloned horses born that year.
March 17, 2021 – Scientists announce in the journal Nature that they have generated a model of an early human embryo, called iBlastoids, by reprogramming skin cells. Researchers imagine its usage to include aiding with in vitro fertilization therapies and the study of early human development. The model cannot develop into a human being.